Thursday, June 9, 2016


When Johann Wolfgang Goethe the ‘Giant of World Literature,’ took as his mistress the uneducated maid Christiane Vulpius, it created a social scandal in Weimar’s high society. It was a love story that weathered the storm of criticism and lasted for all of 28 years. It began one fine day in 1788 when Goethe was taking a leisurely stroll in a park and Christiane approached him with a petition in favour of her brother. Her family was in straightened circumstances as her father had been put in prison for some minor bureaucratic error. Her brother a writer of adventure novels needed a job to boost the family income.
            Goethe was smitten by the girl’s good looks, her rosy cheeks, her sparkling eyes and her buxom figure. He took her home for a live-in relationship that lasted 18 years, before he made an honest woman out of her, through marriage on 19th October 1806 at the Jacobskirke in Weimar. Weimar’s high society both the womenfolk and the Literati like Schiller and Thomas Mann were highly critical of his choice. Mann called her ‘a beautiful piece of meal.’ The women resented Christiane because she had robbed them of Goethe’s attention. Charlotte von Stein his lover was livid. Charlotte the wife of Schiller called her a ‘round nothing’ and Bettina von Arnim named her ‘a black pudding.’ Even Goethe’s mother thought she was a sensual ‘bed treasure’ with no claims to intellectual ability.
            But though Christiane had little education and was of no social standing, she was a good wife and a loving companion. For her, Goethe’s welfare was supreme. When their first child Julius August Walther was born on 25th December 1789, Goethe greeted him with the words “Love formed you. You will receive just love.” He even prevailed upon Karl Augustus the Duke of Weimar to be the child’s godfather. But the child’s crying disturbed his work and he took himself off to Italy for long periods, returning only when the desire to be with Christiane took hold of him. Goethe’s mother came to know of Christiane and her grandson only in 1792.
            Three more children were born to Christiane. But none of them survived due to complications of Rhesus incompatibility. Goethe was away for most of the time during her pregnancies and was never present during her labours. As his literary productivity increased, he spent more time away from home.
            A strong friendship developed between Goethe and Schiller. When Goethe’s family moved into a large house in Frauenplan, Christiane proved a warm and friendly hostess in spite of Schiller’s animosity towards her. She was always kind and caring and never offensive. Schiller however, considered her only as Goethe’s housekeeper, and lacked the civility to thank her for her hospitality.
            On their silver anniversary, Goethe dedicated a poem ‘Gefunden’ (Discovery) to Christiane. Years later, her nephew Wolfgang Volpius wrote in her biography, “No wife who has reached her silver wedding anniversary year has ever got a more meaningful and more tender greeting from her husband.”
            Christiane died of uraemia on 6th June 1816. She had previously suffered two strokes and had painful convulsions during her death. She died alone. Goethe was never beside her when she needed him most. She was buried at Jakobsfriedhof in Weimar. After her death, Schiller’s wife wrote of Goethe, “The poor man wept bitterly. It grieves me that he should shed tears for such objects.”
            Christiane provided emotional sustenance to Goethe. She did not feel any sense of inferiority or inadequacy in spite of the barbs and insults thrown at her by Weimar’s society. She had a great capacity to love. Goethe’s mother had to agree that ‘she was a wonderful unspoiled creature.’ As Gary Oliver says, “Real love is choosing to make an unconditional commitment to an imperfect person.”
            After her death Goethe became fat and ugly and began drinking wine excessively. He died on March 22nd 1832.


Wednesday, April 20, 2016


Germaine de Stael was one of the early feminists who championed women’s right to self expression. Hailed as an important intellectual of her time, she was also ridiculed as ‘man woman,’ because she was strong willed, decisive and took a definite stand on issues close to her heart. She was dominating and bossy and knew how to influence people to further her own ends. There were three different facets to her character – political, intellectual and sexual- distinct and running side by side.
            Germaine’s one disappointment was that she failed to inspire Napoleon to envision her goals. At the outset, she was willing to proclaim Napoleon as great, provided he considered some of her ideas to turn France into an outstanding nation. A confirmed misogynist, Napoleon not only spurned her ideas but laughed at her attempts to influence him. He hated loud mouthed, self opinionated women and was immune to her charms. He preferred docile, submissive creatures like his wife Josephine or his mistress Mario Walewski.
“Who is the greatest woman in history?” she asked him.
“It is the woman who has borne the most children,” he replied, making her seethe with frustration.
            Germaine had a striking personality but was by no means beautiful. She was on the pudgy side with an enormous bosom, and her deep necked attire revealed much of her bulging breasts. On one occasion, he peeped into her cleavage and had the impertinence to ask how many children she had suckled.
            As Napoleon’s power grew turning him into a ruthless dictator, Germaine’s opposition to him escalated. She turned her father’s chateau at Coppet into an intellectual power house and a refuge for those who opposed Napoleon. She forcefully incited opposition against him. Her salon in Paris became a prominent political centre. She was constantly at loggerheads with the regime in France and encouraged her friends Talleyrand, Narbonne and Benjamin Constant to speak against government proposals.
            Napoleon considered her an enemy of the State. She was exiled three times from France, for short periods between 1803 – 1812. He persecuted Germaine at every possible opportunity, as he was aware of her great influence on anti-Bonapartists. Her book on Germany which introduced German Romanticism and Philosophy to France was seized by Napoleon’s police in 1810, as being UnFrench and subversive, and burned. It was subsequently published in London in 1813.
            Germaine put together a coalition that brought down Napoleon. Treaty negotiations between Russia and Sweden were mediated through her.
She came back to Paris only after Napoleon abdicated. Attempts to usher in Constitutional Monarchy were framed in her salon in Paris.
            Germaine was also an accomplished writer, though she never became as popular as her contemporaries Fanny Burney and Jane Austen. She did her finest writing in exile. Her books Delphine and Corrine or Italy were well known. Corrine published in 1807 made a great impact on women outside France. Corrine became an international symbol of Romanticism. Many famous women modeled their lives on the protagonist of this book.  Germaine also had good friends among the Intelligentsia of Europe like Byron, Schiller, Goethe, Chateaubriand and others.
            Germaine was born Anne Louise Germaine Necker in Paris on April 26, 1766. Her father Jacques Neckar a Swedish protestant, was Director of Finance under Louis XVI, but was dismissed in 1788. Germaine was his only child and he loved her very much, calling her his little ‘Minette.’ Her mother Suzanne Curchod a French intellectual was very dominating and showed no affection for her daughter. Germaine disliked her mother intensely.
            Germaine was married to Eric Magnus Stael von Holstein a Swiss nobleman who was eighteen years her senior. Through her father’s influence, he was made Permanent Ambassador to France. Germaine was now Baroness de Stael, the richest heiress in France. But they separated a few years later, giving her the freedom to dally with a succession of men. She was a sensual woman and of the five children she bore only one was sired by her husband. Viscount Louis Narbonne was the father of her two children Auguste and Albert. She had many brief flings.
            But the love of her life was Benjamin Constant, French author and political leader and their affair lasted on and off for seventeen years. Theirs was an intellectual and romantic bonding, exciting but also exhausting. Constant was the father of her daughter Albertine.
He described Germaine as a demanding lover and an attention seeker. “Everybody’s entire existence, every hour, every minute, for years on end, must be at her disposal or there was an explosion like all thunderstorm and earthquake together.”
            Her last lover was Lt. John Rocca, twenty years her junior. When her husband died in 1802, she married Rocca secretly. This was not known until after her death. She bore him a son.
            During her last years, this witty, voluble, bold woman began to abuse opium and was laid low with severe stomach pains. She suffered a stroke, and passed away on July 14, 1817, Bastille Day. She was just 51 years old. Her husband died six months later from TB.

            During her lifetime Germaine weathered many political upheavals - the last years of the Monarchy, the French Revolution, Napoleon’s rule and post Napoleon years. Napoleon said of her, “How does it happen that all who speak to her come to like me less and less.”

Tuesday, February 2, 2016



The fascinating life of Caroline Herschel proves beyond doubt that ingenuity, inquisitiveness and a keen sense of observation can override any physical disability or handicap. She was born in Hanover Germany, on March 6th 1750, to Isaac Herschel a musician in the Hanover Military Band and Anna Ilse Mortisen a housewife. Small pox disfigured her face at the age of three, leaving her with a drooping left eyelid. At the age of ten, an attack of Typhus dwarfed her stature, leaving her with a permanent height of 4’3”. While her father saw to it that she had an elementary education, her mother was convinced that she was fit only to be a scullery maid.
            Caroline’s brother Frederick William Herschel who was twelve years her senior, rescued her from such a plight and took her away to England to keep house for him. He was a musician who had settled in Bath. He taught Caroline music and helped develop her voice. She became a well known soprano and even began to sing professionally.
            But her brother had a passion for Astronomy since childhood. Though he was an outstanding instrumentalist, he gave it all up to pursue his passion. He trained his sister to be his assistant. She gradually began to share his interest in astronomy and worked closely with him.
            However, the telescopes they could afford were small and the images projected were often blurred. So the two worked together to build their own telescope, until they were satisfied with the clarity of the images it projected. William impressed on his sister that important discoveries could be made only through systematically observing the heavenly bodies, their interesting features and their relative positions in space.
            When William discovered the planet Uranus in 1781, Caroline was by his side. He was knighted and appointed court astronomer by King George III. Meanwhile Caroline who had developed a keen interest in the subject, made her own discoveries and observations.  William had also trained her in mathematics. In 1783, she discovered three new nebulae. On August
1st, 1786, she discovered her first comet and was the first woman astronomer to do so. It was called ‘first lady comet.’ Between 1786 and 1787, Caroline discovered eight comets and several nebulae.
             William began to develop many more powerful telescopes. Caroline assisted him by grinding and polishing the lenses. In 1787, King George III officially employed her as William’s assistant. It brought in a modest salary of 50 pounds per annum. She became the first woman to be paid for scientific services.
            Caroline also helped her brother to develop a modern mathematical approach to astronomy. Between them, they discovered 2500 nebulae and compiled their findings in a new General Catalogue.
            When William died in 1822, Caroline returned to Hanover, but continued her work in fields of astronomy and math and also in cataloguing nebulae. An asteroid was given her second name Lucretia and a lunar crater was named after her.
            In 1828 at the age of 75, she received a gold medal from the Royal Astronomic Society. She became the first woman to receive honorary membership of Britain’s Royal Society. On her 96th birthday, the King of Prussia presented her with the Gold Medal of Science.
            Caroline died at the ripe old age of 98 on January1st, 1848, and was buried at the cemetery Gartengemeinde, on 35, Marienstrasse, Hanover. She wrote her own epitaph which is engraved on her tomb stone. “The eyes of her who is glorified here below turned to the starry heavens.”
Though Caroline Herschel was a dwarf in stature, God gave her the enviable gift of surveying the heavens and reading the poetry of the stars.

Friday, November 20, 2015



            When Nadezha Popova a heroine of World War II died at the age of 91 in Moscow on July 8th 2013, no flags flew at half mast in recognition of her brave wartime services. In fact, the Night Bomber Units of the Russian Air Force had quietly slipped into oblivion after the war.
            Nadezha was born in Shabanovka, Ukraine on December 17th, 1921. She was not particularly interested in Academics but loved outdoor activities. At the age of 15, she joined a Flying Club to learn how to fly. Within a year she was able to take her first solo flight and also make a parachute jump. Later, she trained at an Aviation School in Kherson, Ukraine.
            During the war, German soldiers invaded her home and turned it into a Gestapo Police station. Her brother was killed and the family left homeless.  Overhead, German planes strafed innocent civilians indiscriminately and gloated over the havoc they created. It stirred up anger in this young girl and a desire for revenge.
            Women were not inducted into the Russian Armed Forces until 1941 because ‘no one wanted to give women the freedom to die.’ But realizing how women could be put to good use in the war effort, Stalin established three all-women Air Force units. One of these was the 588th Night Bomber Regiment.
            Nadezha was 19 when she enlisted. Most of the other girls who joined the regiment were also in their teens. They were ill equipped for this mission. Even the uniforms they wore were hand-me-downs from the men.
            The planes these young teenagers were expected to fly were obsolete two-seaters – the 1920 vintage Polikarpov PO2 planes. These had ply wood frames with canvas stretched across, and had the most rudimentary instruments.  No guns, radios or parachutes. The girls had to chart their course with compasses, maps and stop watches. Each plane had two bombs strapped under their wings. So the girls had to make several sorties during the night, as part of their duty. The planes had limited speed and had to be flown at low levels to escape detection by radar. They cut their engines before gliding over a target and releasing the bombs. Then they re-started the engines and flew away.
            The peculiar whooshing sound made by the engines sounded like witches riding in the sky on their broomsticks. So the Germans christened them ‘Night Witches.’ These dare devils caused a lot of damage to German military encampments, supply depots and isolated air bases. The Night Witches did about 30,000 missions in four years, and dropped 23,000 tons of bombs. Any German who shot down a Night Witch was decorated with the Iron Cross.
            The planes usually flew in formations of three. Two advance decoys were followed by the third plane which dropped the bombs. Each plane took turns in the bombing routine.
            These young women were fearless. Fired by a spirit of patriotism and hatred for the Germans, they were hell bent on doing as much damage to the enemy as their puny planes would allow. Many times they flew through walls of enemy fire. Some were shot down and lost their lives. Germans spread the rumour that these witches were given injections to improve their night vision.
            Nadezha Popova was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. She was active in 852 missions. Though she came under fire many times she was not badly hurt.
On one occasion when she was shot and forced to land, she found herself in a group of retreating troops and civilians. It was here that she met another pilot Semyon Kharlamov, who was also shot down. They saw each other several times during the war. In 1945, at the end of the war, they were both in Berlin and signed their names on the wall of the Reichstag.
            Nadezha and Semyon were married soon after and lived a happy life until Semyon’s death in 1990. Post-war, Nadezha went back to being a flying instructor. She was decorated with several honours – The Soviet Medal of Honour, Order of Friendship, Order of Lenin and Order of the Red Banner.

            Nadezha joins the ranks of the many brave women who risked their lives for their country in World War II.

Wednesday, October 21, 2015


            If creativity and madness are two sides of the same coin, it is well exemplified in the life of Zelda Sayre Fitzgerald. She was a painter and writer whose best work was done within the confines of psychiatric institutions, where she spent most of her adult life. Some called her illness Bipolar Disorder. Others thought she was a schizophrenic. But at John Hopkins, doctors thought she had no mental illness but her mental state of mind was due to a destructive relationship with a paranoid alcoholic husband. It was probably his subversive tendencies that added to her syndrome of schizophrenia. Zelda wanted to be a writer, painter and dancer. Her husband Scott Fitzgerald discouraged her creativity. He was domineering and jealous and tried to restrict her movements.
            Zelda was the daughter of Judge Antony Dickenson Sayre a prominent judge in Montgomery, Alabama. Zelda therefore belonged to the higher echelons of society. She was named after a gypsy heroine portrayed in a novel of 1874. The quirks in her character were evident even as a teenager. She would smoke, flirt outrageously with anyone she fancied, and loved to dance, sometimes in the nude. She was the darling of the Jazz Age and her friends even formed a fraternity called Zeta Sigma, where they took an oath of devotion to her.
            Scott Fitzgerald was in the Army in 1918 and was 21 years old when he met Zelda Sayre all of 17 years and just out of school. She was beautiful, feckless and undisciplined. But he married her in 1920 as soon as he was discharged from the Army. He took up a job in a New York advertising firm, and also started writing in earnest. His first book “This side of Paradise” brought success and social exposure. Their all-night parties and drinking sessions led to debts but Scott blamed this on Zelda’s poor housekeeping.  As he progressed in his writing, they moved between America, Paris and the Riviera. Theirs was a rocky marriage from the start. Scott wanted seclusion for his writing but Zelda craved for the good things of life. There were times when he locked her in their house because of her erratic behaviour.  Some suspected him of domestic violence. His alcoholism increased. How he managed to write his famous novels including ‘The Great Gatsby’ in his state of mind is quite surprising. Though he blamed Zelda for his alcoholism, he was already an addict when he married her.
            Zelda accused him of stealing her diaries and using her dialogues in his novels. She was the inspiration for many of his heroines, and the remarkable lines she uttered were appropriated from her diaries. She fuelled his insecurities because he was always afraid that she would expose him. She called it ‘plagiarism at home.’
            Zelda wrote many short stories but authored only one full length novel ‘Save me the Waltz.’ It was published by Scribner in 1932. Scott tried to prevent this ‘autobiography of an unstable marriage’ from being published, but didn’t succeed. However, the book didn’t make headlines.
            Though they were estranged in 1934, they were never divorced. Zelda spent the last years of her life, between 1936 – 47, as an inmate of the Highland Hospital, Ashville in North Carolina. Various therapies were tried out on her with little success. Due to the shock therapy she received, she had no recollection of her early years. She continued to alternate between periods of depression and spells of high energy and creativity. Her best paintings belong to this period. Unfortunately several of them were destroyed by fire.
            Zelda outlived her husband by seven years. She died at the Ashville Hospital on March 10th 1947. Pluto called creativity ‘Divine Madness.’ Byron said, “Creativity and genius feed on mental turmoil,” which is very true of Zelda’s life.
            The couple had one daughter Frances Fitzgerald in 1921. But the marriage of Zelda and Scott Fitzgerald was taken right out of the Devil’s Dictionary.
            “They stood before the altar and supplied
              The fire themselves, in which their fat was fried.”
The Scott and Zelda Museum in Montgomery is an interesting place to visit.

Thursday, July 23, 2015


Christine Granville Britain’s first female Special Agent of World War II, was Churchill’s favourite spy. A woman who loved adventure, her exploits and espionage work during WWII are truly mind boggling.
"Krystyna Skarbek" by Source. Licensed under Fair use via Wikipedia -
Born Krystyna Skarbek, this young Polish woman was the Beauty Queen of Warsaw at the age of 19. But she was well aware that “Beauty has a short lived reign.” Early in life she realised that life was duty and only intelligence and resourcefulness could bring true fulfillment and self esteem.
Krystyna was born on the 1st of May 1908 in Warsaw, to Roman Catholic Count Jerzy Skarbeck and a wealthy Jewish heiress from a Banking family, Stephanie Goldfeder. She was greatly influenced by her father who encouraged her to be a tomboy, and created in her a love for the outdoors. Horse riding and skiing were skills she acquired from a young age.
But Count Jerzy Skarbeck loved the good things of life and squandered the wealth of his wife, leaving the family in straightened circumstances on his death in 1930. To support the family, Krystyna took up a job in a Fiat dealership company. She had to give it up within a few months as she developed severe allergy to the automobile fumes. On medical advice she spent more time outdoors and became an expert in hiking and skiing in the Tatra range of mountains in southern Poland.
Krystyna’s first marriage to Gustav Gettlich a businessman on 21st April 1930 fizzled out within a short time. Her second marriage was to Jerzy Gizycki a wealthy brilliant eccentric who shared her love for adventure, on November 2nd 1938. He was sent to Ethiopia as a Polish Consul General, where he stayed till September 1939. But when WWII broke out and Germany invaded Poland, the couple moved to London, where Krystyna offered her services to the British Secret Intelligence. In 1940 she became a Special Operations Executive (SOE) and was given various tasks of sabotage and undercover missions for the Allied forces in Europe. The SOE was involved in espionage, reconnaissance and sabotage missions. Krystyna started using the pseudonym Christine Granville in 1941. (Later in 1946, when she became a British citizen, she legally adopted the name.)
Christine became an Intelligence Courier skiing over the Tatra Mountains at night, in temperatures sometimes as low as -30C, to dodge the Border Patrols. With her bravado and cunning she was well suited for the job. She took British propaganda into Warsaw to bolster the spirit of the Polish Resistance. Then she skied back over the mountains with secret information about the deployment of German SS and Wermacht units stationed around Warsaw. She helped organize a system of Polish couriers who brought Intelligence from Warsaw to Budapest.
In 1941 she was arrested by the Gestapo along with a Polish Army officer Andrzy Kowerski, and faced torture and death. But with her penchant for cunning, she bit her tongue to make it bleed and pretended to be suffering from Tuberculosis. Terrified of contracting the disease, the Gestapo officers set both of them free. Kowerski the one-legged Polish hero and Christine had a long and serious relationship since they met in Budapest in 1939. They worked together in Budapest, Poland and Cairo. This however did not prevent her from having affairs with other young men. She even dated Ian Fleming for over a year. He was so impressed by this brave lady who travelled with a knife taped to her thigh and a suicidal pendant around her neck, that his heroine Vesper Lynd in Casino Royale was modeled on Christine.
Christine’s greatest exploit was shortly before the Allies invaded France in 1944. She parachuted into France as Madam Pauline Armand, to assist the French Resistance fighters in advance of the American ground invasion. Francis Cammaerts and his men of the French Resistance were caught by the Nazis and faced execution. Christine stormed the office of the prison guard in Digne, posing as a British agent. She announced that Digne was soon to be bombed and the Allies were advancing rapidly. The guard could only save himself by releasing the French prisoners and seeking pardon. He took her to the Gestapo officer who was in charge. Christine threatened him with death at the hands of the French mob when the Allies attacked. She also offered him a bribe of two million francs. Cammaerts and his men were released and went on to be the key liberators of France. Her daring act restored Christine’s political and military reputation, as there were some in British Intelligence who suspected her of being a German spy. She was the only female subaltern who was promoted to Captain. She worked in Europe till the end of the war.
Post war, Christine was not absorbed into the British Intelligence Service but was discharged with five months of severance salary. Because of the Anglo-American betrayal of her country at the Yalta Conference in 1945 to Stalin’s ruthless regime, Christine was rendered stateless. The British dragged their feet over her citizenship until 1946. By now she was divorced from her husband. With no financial reserves to fall back on, this once flamboyant anti-Nazi agent took on a low paying job as stewardess on the Union Castle Line. She booked into the cheap Selborne Hotel in Earl’s Court on June 11th !952. She was stabbed to death in the lobby on 15th June, by a man named Dennis Muldowney whose advances she had spurned.

By Dobry77 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

Christine’s planned meeting after the war, with long time lover Andrzy Kowerski never took place. This brave woman who was once a law unto herself was interred in St. Mary’s Catholic Cemetery in Kensal Green, North London. Kowerski died in Munich in 1988 and his ashes were flown to London, to be buried at the foot of her grave.
Christine was awarded the George Medal for her exploits in Digne. In May 1947, she was made Officer of the Order of the British Empire for her war work in conjunction with British Secret Service. The French decorated her with the Croix de Guerre for her contribution to the liberation of France.

One is left with the feeling that this daring Polish espionage agent in spite of being Churchill’s favourite spy, was eventually short changed by Britain.

Monday, March 30, 2015



            A small sign “Elsa Brandstrom Street” near the Rhine in Bonn piqued my curiosity. Who was this woman? I learnt that there were many schools, institutions and streets named after her in Germany and Austria.
            Elsa was a Swedish nurse and philanthropist. She was born on March 26th, 1888, in St. Petersburg, when her father Edvard Brandstrom was posted as Military Attaché, at the Swedish Embassy in Russia. But she grew up in Sweden and completed her education at the Anna Sandstrom Teachers’ Training College in Stockholm.
            Years later, when her father now a General, was posted as Swedish Ambassador to the court of Tsar Nicholas II, Elsa returned to Russia and volunteered as a nurse in the Russian Army, during World War I.
            In 1915,Elsa was sent to Siberia under the Swedish Red Cross banner, to care for German and Austrian prisoners of war, as they were treated very badly by the Russians. This tall, blue eyed, blonde young woman brought solace to many ill and demoralized soldiers who suffered from malnutrition, Typhoid, and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. It earned her the name “Angel of Siberia.” Elsa also started a Swedish Aid Organization for prisoners of war. But her work was curtailed during the October Revolution of 1917 -1918. However, she made many trips between Sweden and Siberia, but was arrested at Omsk in 1919, and convicted to death by a firing squad. To her good luck the death sentence was later revoked, though she had to languish in jail till the end of 1920.
            Back in Sweden, Elsa’s concern for the POWs saw her actively involved in fund raising for them. She soon moved to Germany and served at a Rehabilitation Centre for POWs in Marienbom-Schmekwitz. She even spent her own money and bought a mill (Schreibermuhl) surrounded by vast property, close to the Rehabilitation Centre. The fields, meadows and forests were used to grow potatoes and other crops, so that these men could earn their livelihood by cultivating the land.
            She was tireless in her efforts to better the lives of these men who had suffered in the war. In 1923, she went on a fund raising tour of the United States for six months, in her Swedish Red Cross uniform. People were interested to learn of her experiences in Siberia, during and after World War I. They were generous with their donations.
            In 1924, she started ‘Neusorge’ a home for orphaned children of POWs at Mitteida. It had the capacity to accommodate 200 children. But when she married Professor Heinrich Robert Ullich in 1929, she had to move to Dresden. So she sold the mill and donated the money to a welfare organization. She also handed over charge of the orphanage, when assured that they would run it efficiently.
            Elsa’s burden was always for the soldiers who had been prisoners of war, and who needed to be rehabilitated into civilian life. When she moved to Harvard with her husband for a few years, she continued to help German and Austrian soldiers who arrived in the United States as refugees, looking out for opportunities whereby they could work and sustain themselves.
            During World War II, Elsa raised funds for the starving and homeless women in Germany. Two organizations started by Her (CARE- Cooperative for American Relief in Europe, and CRALOG –Council of Relief Agencies Licensed for Operation in Germany) brought in sizeable donations from Germans and Americans. ‘Save the Children’s Fund’ was also another of her interests. She travelled all over Europe giving lectures on the plight of children and their various needs.
            Elsa was honoured by the Silber Badge of the German Empire, The Royal Order of the Seraphim from Sweden, and was also nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize five times. She died of bone cancer in 1948 and was buried in Sweden.
            At the Arne Karlsson Park in Vienna, after the XXth International Conference of the Red Cross on September 6th, 1965, a monument was erected here in gratitude for Elsa’s work among German and Austrian prisoners of war. The sculptor of the monument was Robert Ullman. Professor Hans Weiland an old POW, who had experienced her goodness, highlighted her life and work among the prisoners. He said, “It is in love for her neighbour that she perceived salvation for humanity.”
            The war brought many heroines in different nations. But Elsa’s unflinching devotion to soldiers, who spent the best years of their lives in the trenches of war, was something unique. She was worthy to be honoured.